Modifier keys alter the way other keystrokes or mouse clicks are interpreted.


Hold the Shift key down to type capital letters and other alternate “upper”
characters. The Shift key is sometimes used with the Option key and or the
Command key to access extra keyboard shortcuts. Holding down Shift whilst
moving the cursor in a range of text or list of files will highlight the selection
so that it can be manipulated further with other actions.

Caps Lock

The Caps Lock key is a toggle key. When Caps Lock is on, every letter that is
typed will be a capital letter.

alt or Option

This key has either the “ ” symbol, or the letters “alt” or both marked on the key.
It is called the Option key and it changes the function of other keys which are being
pressed at the same time. It also provides easier access to various accents and
symbols. When you hold down the Option key and use a mouse, the mouse action
can change behaviour.

or Command

This key has either the “” or “ ” symbol or both marked on the key. It is called the
Command key and it changes what other keys do when pressed at the same time as
other keys. Different combinations activate different keyboard shortcut commands
in an application. ( is a trademark of Apple).


The Control or Ctrl key is pressed with other key-combinations to activate various
keyboard shortcuts. If you use a one button mouse, holding down the control key
whilst clicking the mouse also gives you the same menu options found on the right
click button of a two-button mouse.